As a scientific organisation Faculty of Medicine ensures the quality and health services while pursuing its main responsibilities for education, scientific research and community services, and plays a pivotal role in training specialists who have sufficient professional qualifications compatible with the medical qualification and quantity to meet the heath needs of the society (1). Faculty of Medicine, in general, responsible for conducting research related with the health problems of the society; reaching the information and product to maintain and improve the well-being of the society; utilising and disseminating the information effectively and presenting health service to the society. Today, Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine is one of the prominent faculties among the medical schools as a reference point in the southern part of Marmara region founded to carry out its responsibilities in 1970.
Reasons of the Foundation of Faculty of Medicine
With the beginning of the second half of the twenty-one century, the disease-oriented health education and service have been replaced with society-oriented service in which the heath priorities of the society are considered. As an outcome of this process, a society-oriented health service policy has been adopted in line with the requirements of the society. As a priority, the aim has been increasing the health status of the society.
In the first Five-Year Development Plan (1963-1967), the focuses are that the inadequacy in the number of the health staff delays to fulfil the aims with regard to health, the considerable difference among the regions, inadequacy in the number of the bed and the distributions of the beds for patients among the cities are not balanced. Increasing the number of the specialists, treatment centres and the number of the medical faculty are among the aims concerning health, and cooperation among the organisations are envisaged (2). In the second Five-Year Development Plan (1968-1972), the contributions of the faculty of medicine are highlighted for medical services. One of the aims to compensate for the required number of the physicians is to benefit from the potential of education in the big heath centres (3). In the third Five-Year Development Plan (1973-1977), it has been identified that the specialists have a tendency to work in developed cities and patients in the other cities which have an inadequate service head for developed cities. Therefore, the demand for health organisations for inpatients has increased (4). In the health plans described above, the biggest obstacle has been emphasised in providing health service is the insufficiency in the number of the specialists, accordingly, the aim for each stage of the health services is training adequate number and qualified labour force and being employed. The second crucial issue arises from the obstacle is that patients who live in the cities, where they do not have any sufficient medical services, go to developed cities. Moreover, it is notable that the contribution the medical faculties will address the difficulties on health services. In light of these aims, it has been decided that Istanbul Faculty of Medicine and Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine would take part in the foundation of a medical faculty in Bursa and in Edirne respectively (5).
In accordance with the determination, the underlying reasons which paved the way for the foundation of Bursa Faculty of Medicine could be addressed in two sub-titles: 1. Increase in the population in the metropolitan city Istanbul and patients’ mobility from other cities to Istanbul for health problems. 2. Bursa will take part in the planning to increase the number of the specialists and the assignment that Istanbul Faculty of Medicine is responsible.
1. Increase in the population in the metropolitan city Istanbul and patients’ mobility from other cities to Istanbul for health problems
Domestic migration has been present in our country with an increase since 1950. This flow of migration has been mainly from rural areas to urban areas (6). While the ratio of the city population to the total population was 16,3% in 1960 in Turkey, the ratio mounted to 35,9% in 1970 (4). The immigration to our biggest metropolitan city Istanbul has accompanied severe health problems, in addition to the problem of unemployment, settlement, residence, environment, infrastructure, education and public security (6). The increase in the population inevitably gives rise to a huge burden on the health service systems. This burden in meeting the basic health services is the outcome of this ongoing demand. The immigration from the village to the city in our country was approximately 880 thousand people in 1960-1965, in 1965-1970, the immigration was more than 1 million 600 thousand and in 1970 8,5% of the population of the country lived in Istanbul (4). In addition to the increasing population, the patients who cannot have adequate medical service tend to go to Istanbul. With regard to meeting the health service need that brings on this cluster, it is emphasised that the increase in the number of the hospital in the metropolis in the region will give rise to unbalanced dissemination (4). The requirements of the society and the priority of these needs start the supply-demand process. It was recommended that as a solution to the increasing health service needs, increasing the number of the specialists, the availability of treatment organisations in other provinces, employing a sufficient number of the people by considering the balance among regions and opening new medical faculties in provinces which are proper for the conditions.
Being one of the most crowded cities in the world Istanbul was considered a city reference where professionally qualified specialists, reference specialist due to the high qualification of the health organisations and hospitals are available compared to other cities in our country because of the problems encountered by other cities such as a limited number of the medical specialists, an insufficient capacity and infrastructure, and problems in the organisation of health services. Hence, referring patients from almost all regions in Turkey to the health organisations in Istanbul brought on challenges for the limited opportunities. It became inevitable that when the people, who could not have a medical treatment, were added to the increasing population, the number of the beds in the inpatient treatment organisations decreased. Thus, opening a medical faculty in other provinces will contribute to decreasing the differences between the regions.
2. Participation of Bursa in the planning of increasing the number of the specialists and the mission of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine
In line with Five-Year Development Plan, through founding a health policy private expertise commission to determine where the faculties of medicine would be found, and the number of the faculties, Prof. Dr. Sabahattin Payzın from Ankara Faculty of Medicine was assigned in 1965 by the Prime Ministry State Planning Organization. Prof. Dr. Sabahattin Payzın pointed out in the report that the foundation of a medical faculty in Bursa was a priority and necessity owing to a variety of reasons: The faculty would provide service to South Marmara region; meeting the need for faculty members would be easy; the developed industry, land and sea transportation; the public is conscious; the closeness of Bursa to the provinces such as Canakkale and Bursa, where the developed governmental and military hospitals were available. Given this report, the first official application to open a faculty in medicine in Bursa was made on November 16, 1965 to the Ministry of National Education by Bursa governorship. When Bursa was considered appropriate as an outcome of Prof. Dr. Payzın’s report and approved by authority, Association of Bursa University Foundation started its work on December 3, 1965 with the attempt of Bursa Governorship and public support (7).
In accord with the goals in Five-Year Development Plan in Higher Education Research Report, which was prepared by the State Planning Organization in 1968, the service investment for the regions, which did not benefit from the services, the universities that were going to be opened and their regions were identified. Another recommendation in the same report was giving the responsibility of the faculties in the new universities to the relevant faculties to the faculties in developed universities to play a leading role for the development of the new university. The State Planning Organization recommendation was related with foundation of new faculties of medicine instead of increasing the number of the specialist (8). Hence, both the cluster of lecturers and students in the available universities would be prevented, and the dissemination of higher education would be balanced (9).
After the basic principles related with the foundation of new universities were identified in the new report, the work on the universities needed to be open and their regions were carried out in 170s. General measures with regard to the foundation of new universities were identified as training the human force needed and contribution to the development of the region (10). Moreover, it was envisaged that in addition to satisfying the needs arose from an increase in the population, the faculties could be founded in the areas where government investment and the health service were insufficient to provide human force (10).
It was emphasised that, in the new report, the area where the new universities would be founded was not chosen away from the region development centres (8), the necessity for each organisation to start education when they had a sufficient number of the faculty members (8,9).
The lower limits that are used to determine the development level of a city are new departments that the region needs/will need through identifying the need, not to excess the capacity of the city in terms of economical, population and socio-cultural aspects, the neighbouring cities should be reachable, not to overload the region and readiness of the city for the universities. In accordance with these criteria, one of the ten universities, which opened between 1973-1981 (Diyarbakır, Eskişehir, Adana, Sivas, Malatya, Elazığ, Samsun, Konya, Bursa and Kayseri), apart from the big three cities one of them is Bursa University as the 4th university in Marmara region and the 18th university in Turkey. The name of the universities which were founded before had the names of the city where they founded. The names were changed in 1982 through bringing the most distinct geographical feature into the forefront; accordingly, “Bursa University” was named as “Uludağ University” (11).
Bursa University was founded in line with the convention that developed, and the well-established universities had an active role in the foundation of the new universities. The opening of the faculty of medicine which is the core of Uludağ University contributes to the readiness of the city to the presence of the university.
The underlying reason why a university in Bursa was asked for include contributing to the economic, social and cultural development of Bursa and its vicinity, providing an opportunity for education and manpower development and training that the country needs. The factors that are effective are that Bursa has a rapidly-developing industry and a prosperous centre in terms of culture and also Bursa is a dominant power of South Marmara in terms of geography. Moreover, with regard to geography, because Bursa University highly likely would benefit from the high capacity of Istanbul University, it was thought that the university founded in Bursa would have rapid and easy opportunities for development (8).
The former rector of Istanbul University Prof. Dr. Nazım Terzioğlu explained the reason why Istanbul University had a role in the foundation of the university in Bursa with these statements: “One of the important responsibilities of the well-established old universities is to open new learning opportunities to the young, provide the need of human power the country needs.” On the background of the foundation of the medical faculty of the university is the necessity for a comprehensive organisation and facilitating role in the foundation of other faculties and accelerates the development speed of new universities (12).
Stages of Foundation of Bursa Faculty of Medicine
The initial aim of Bursa Faculty of Medicine is to fulfil the expected outcomes which are compatible with the society-centred insights the faculty adopted when founded. The expectations are the following:
1. Training specialists who are professionally qualified to meet the needs of health in the country
2. Carrying out the public service in Bursa and its neighbours through making a contribution to improve the health services which could have some inadequacies in the future conditions
3. Reaching the level of western faculties of medicine in terms of education and research
Prof. Dr. Fikret Karaca, who was the first dean of the faculty, emphasised the health of people and society and the responsibility of the faculty of medicine to educate professionally qualified specialists. Prof. Dr. Fethi Tezok, who was the first rector of the university, focused on society-centred service to boost health services in the Marmara region.
2. Foundation Decision and Administrative Developments:
With a legal establishment in 1970, founded in 1972 and used to be named as Bursa Faculty of Medicine, was the core of Bursa University, which was established in 11 April, 1975 as Bursa University with the code numbered 1873 (16).
A commission was formed after the approval of the dean of the Istanbul Faculty of Medicine Prof. Dr. Safa Karatay’s proposal in faculty board to found a medical faculty in Bursa. The commission was set up to carry out the preliminary work by Prof. Dr. Enver Tali Çetin, Prof. Dr. Kazım Arısan, Prof. Dr. Orhan Şaşmaz, Prof. Dr. Nuran Gökhan, Prof. Dr. Necdet Koçak and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Sedat Katırcıoğlu. The report prepared by the commission was discussed in April, 1969 in a board meeting, and it was decided that a new medical faculty would be founded in Bursa. The proposal presented to the Istanbul University Senate was approved on 10 April 1969 in the 169th session. The legal process was initiated after the bill was presented to the Ministry of Education in June in the same year. As a result of the approval of the State Planning Organization on 29 December 1969 (2/5/61-69/15468 coded), and the favourable opinion of Ministry of Education (30 January 1970 dated and 320-2/0.41.331 coded), in the 30 May 1970 session of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, it was decided that 50 students on behalf of Bursa commenced to have education in Istanbul Faculty of Medicine until the faculty is organised. After this stage, positions for the staff were addressed. The administrative positions were approved by the Istanbul University Senate in January 1971, and in the same year in March it was presented to the Ministry of National Education. For the required 680 staff, 256 staff was assigned by the State Personnel Presidency (17). Secondly, the offer for 16 professors, 25 associate professors, 20 specialists and 3 instructors for the positions of the faculty members which were presented to the council underwent a legal process and became a law with code numbered 1588 and 139 faculty members and supporting staff had positions on May 9, 1972 (18). Faculty board was established in February 1972 with the participation of Prof. Dr. Fikret Karaca, Assoc. Prof. Aydoğan Öbek, Assoc. Prof. Ayhan Arınık, Assoc. Prof. Suat Kıyan, Assoc. Prof. Yılmaz Türkeri, Assoc. Prof. İbrahim Ildırım and Assoc. Prof. Münir Kerim Karakaya. Bursa Faculty of Medicine was founded with the dean Prof. Dr. Fikret Karaca on March 3, 1972 (17).
3. Initial work for the Foundation of the Faculty:
As an initial step, Bursa Provincial Administration, Foundation of Bursa University Association and with the effort of Prof. Dr. Fikret Karaca, the decision for the residential area for the Faculty of Medicine was commenced (5). The appropriate areas to found Faculty of Medicine in Bursa was investigated (5). Planning Commission of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine recommended the construction of buildings for basic medical science, deanship and administration, training hospital, lecture halls, medical library, hydroclimatology research centre, the dwelling houses university provided and sport facilities in the session on May 9, 1971. As an outcome of the commission’s work, an advertisement on architectural competition project was given to the newspapers on November 3, 1972. The first prize was given to the project of the team of Mine İnceoğlu, Necati İnceoğlu and Çınar Şahenk on February 19, 1973 by the jury composed of the rector of Istanbul University, dean, faculty members, architecture and civil engineers (13). On the other hand, in order to make the faculty of medicine in Bursa in use quickly, suitable places were investigated (5). Among these places were High Specialization Hospital, which was formerly named as Chest Hospital, and Social Insurance Hospital in Altıparmak and also a school building in Altıparmak. After the examination, Chest Hospital was chosen as appropriate. As an outcome of the protocol with the Ministry of Public Health and Welfare, a 400-bed hospital was allocated for the faculty in 1974. People living in Bursa made substantial financial contributions to the construction of hospital. To increase the capacity of hospital, facility with 300 rooms in Uludağ Kirazliyayla was opened. However, its maintenance was not done due to the lack of financial sources. On the other hand, legal expropriation started in order to build other facilities of faculty (17). First of all, Clinical classes commenced to give education in Breast Diseases Hospital on 30 May 1974. Since the hospital was not constructed as Faculty of Medicine, it has not got enough space for professors and assistants, medical personnel, Faculty of Medicine Students and it is not possible to enlarge the hospital (14). In addition to these problems, many medical devices could not be used due to the lack of space (15).
Legal expropriation commenced at the 17th kilometres in the west of Bursa on the way to İzmir on 15 thousand acres of land of Görükle. It was started to construction of dean’s building, fundamental medical sciences building, lecture halls, and experimental animals building in July 1975 and training and research hospital with 1000 beds was started to construct in 1976 (17).
The purchase of necessary equipment for laboratories of Bursa Faculty of Medicine which were not bought from the budget until 1975 were bought first by the grant founding Istanbul University allocated in 1973 and until the creation of physical conditions of the new faculty these materials were in the store at Istanbul University (17). The necessary infrastructure was performed by spreading to time course due to the lack of sufficient grant. The limited amount of money allocated to Bursa Faculty of Medicine which operated in tandem with Istanbul University until 1975 were only covering the salaries and expenses of education and were inadequate for the necessary investments. For the development of the faculty, it was necessary that the budget must have been established by its own, and a university must have been built in Bursa. In addition, the university had to be founded for assignments of the teaching staff. In the period of Prof. Dr. Fethi Tezok, who was elected as a dean on 11/11/1974 after the resignation of the first dean of the Faculty, Prof. Dr. Fikret Karaca due to health status, weight was given to the establishment of a university in Bursa for the medical faculty to have its own budget. With the approval of the Ministry of Education on 04/04/1975 for the establishment of the Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences Bursa University was opened on 20/06/1975, and Prof. Dr. Fethi Tezok was selected as the first rector of the university (17). When the name of Bursa University was changed to Uludağ University by Organisation of Higher Education Institutions code number 2809, dated March 28, 1983, the name of Bursa Faculty of Medicine took the name of Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine (19).
4. Faculty Members and the Foundation of First Chairs:
Faculty of Medicine Establishment Code was accepted on 1 June 1972 in the Istanbul Faculty of Medicine board of professors and applications for the faculty members who were willing to be assigned a position was announced (5). The first chairs composed in 1974 when the clinical classrooms commenced for the first time in Bursa were below (20):
Internal Medicine Chair
Faculty members: Prof. Dr. Aydoğan Öbek (Chairman)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ayhan Arınık
Chief assistant: Dr. Ahmet Tunalı
Assistants: Dr. Ender Tekin
Dr. Mustafa Abbas Yurtkuran
Dr. Osman Manavoğlu
Dr. Şazi İmamoğlu
Dr. Recep Kök
Surgical Diseases Chair:
Faculty members: Prof. Dr. Fikret Karaca (Chairman)
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nevzat Koçak
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Onat Arınç
Chief assistants: Dr. Ayhan Kızıl
Dr. Burçin Kutlay
Dr. Mesut Özcan
Assistants: Dr. İzzettin Barbaros Etker
Dr. Hasan Doğruyol
Dr. Duruhan Çulha
Dr. Çetin Çetinkaya
Dr. Birol Ciner
Faculty Member: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Erhan Oğul
Chief assistant: Dr. Sadık Sadıkoğlu
Assistants: Dr. Sefer Özdemir
Dr. Nevzat Pehlivan
Faculty Member: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Metin Arat
Chief assistant: Dr. İlker Tezer
Assistants: Dr. İbrahim Hızalan
Dr. Serkis Mığdışoğlu
Obstetrics and Gynaecology Chair:
Faculty Member: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suat Kıyan
Assistants: Dr. Şakir Küçükkömürcü
Dr. Bediz Tor
Dr. Serpil Yüksel Sarıgöl
Faculty Member: Assoc. Prof. Dr. İbrahim Ildırım
Assistants: Dr. Özgen Eralp
Assistants: Dr. İsmail Çetin Tor
Dr. Nevin Özcenk
Dr. Ayşe Yurtseven
Faculty Member: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Yılmaz Türkeri
Chief Assistant: Dr. Mustafa Özyurt
Assistants: Dr. Adnan Kaleli
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Chair:
Faculty Member: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Münir Kerim Karakaya
Assistants: Dr. Özdemir Kuyucu
Dr. Cihan Heptürk
Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology Chair:
Faculty Member: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Burhan Kemal Kıran
When the 3rd and 4th grades started clinical education for the first time in Bursa in May 1974, in addition to the chairs above, chairs for Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Ophthalmology, Radiology, Pathology, Microbiology, Community Health and Preventive Medicine, Biochemistry, Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, Biophysics, Pathophysiology, and chairs of Forensic Medicine founded, and the faculty members for the chairs were not assigned (14).
When Bursa Faculty of Medicine was officially founded in 1970-1971 academic year, 50 medical students from the faculty commenced to have education in the Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Students completing first three years of their education were planned to have taken clinical classes in Bursa (12). While doing the configuration of the faculty, the number of the medical students who registered for Faculty of Medicine reached 205 until 1974 (21). In May 1974, before the configuration of students’ needs for the student residential, meal and social facilities, construction of pathology and microbiology laboratory and coming of academic members of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, clinical education were taken in two different lecture halls in Breast Disease Hospital. All the alternatives were evaluated in order to eliminate the deficiencies, and construction was completed in the long term. In May 1976, the number of the academic members and assistants who were allocated to Faculty of Medicine were 317. (40 professors, 75 associate professors, 45 specialists, 150 assistants, 4 lecturers, 3 translators); however, there were 12 academic members (2 professors and 10 assistant professors) and 25 assistants who were not been appointed (21). Students’ registration for the first year started in 1977-1978 academic year, and classes were provided in prefabricated buildings in the garden of the hospital. Following the construction of Fundamental Sciences Building and Lecture Halls in Görükle, freshmen, sophomores and juniors commenced to have taken classes in 1985-1986 academic year. After moving of clinics of Chest Disease to Hospital on campus, 4th, 5th and 6th classes commenced to have education in 1992-1993 academic year. 18 students graduated from Faculty of Medicine, and the faculty started credit system in 2001-2002 academic year.
Journal of Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine, which used to be called Journal of Bursa Faculty of Medicine, commenced to publish with a special issue which deals with texts on the establishment of the faculty and its progress in May 1974 when the education started in Bursa.
Although in terms of educational organisations’ historical development processes in the past 40 years Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine can be considered “young”, given the work, which has been carried out, and the targets have been reached since its establishment, it can be evaluated as “mature”.
With the vision of “realising medical education compatible with the international standards, producing knowledge which could contribute to the universal health problems, ever-growing, providing benefits through finding contemporary solutions to the national and universal health problems, training physicians, being a distinguished faculty which is exemplary with its produced knowledge and service, and being proud of its member” (23) our faculty has been considered one of the prestigious organisations of our country in the 21st century.
The main aim of Uludağ University is “to educate and train physicians who are equipped with contemporary knowledge and skills, have advanced research and problem-solving ability; have cultural richness and communication skills; are aware of the health problems in Turkey and equipped with the knowledge, have skills and attitude on how to deal with the problems in primary care; carry out their profession in light of ethical rules; constantly improve themselves and substantially use health technologies”. With this aim, more than 200 students graduate from Uludağ University each year. Since its foundation, the faculty of medicine has trained around 6000 physicians, and 1500 specialist physicians both in education-research and also providing service 158 professors, 77 associate professors,19 assistant professors, 58 specialist physicians and over 384 research assistants have been working as of the year 2012 (23).
After Turkey took part in Bologna process in 2001, which aimed to create compatible mileu in higher education in Europe, our faculty is one of the first instutitions which restructured its education programme. Credit Associate Degree, Undergraduate Education and Education Regulation were adopted by Uludağ University Senate on 8 June 2001. Faculty of Medicine, along with the other faculties in Uludağ University, adopted education system with credit in 2001-2002 academic year (24).
Faculty of Medicine moved Health Practices and Research Center Hospital on Gorukle Campus in June 1992 and Polyclinics are 41116 square meters, clinics are 73448 square meters, and Emergency is 19636 square meters. Uludağ University is 134200 square meters. Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine has a research hospital with a total of 997 beds and 96 of the beds are allocated to intensive care unit which was accredited with all of its units by Joint Commission International (JCI) in 2007, and it is one of the first two hospitals which had accreditation in 2007 in Turkey (23).
In light of the data in 2011, polyclinic patient practice and treatment number is 852.944/per year. The number of the patients receive treatment as an inpatient is 39.271/per year. The number of the medical operation is 25.191/per year (25). Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine regarded as the reference health centre in the South Marmara region and with this aspect the faculty has reached the desired level in the context of contribution to the health service. One of the leading Faculty of Medicine Hospitals in our country, Uludağ University Faculty of Medicine Hospital is a reference point in health service in the South Marmara.
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